Shared and Agreed
Principles

One Land, Two States

Palestine/the Land of Israel is one historic and geographic unit, stretching from the Jordan River to the sea. In it, two sovereign states will exist – Palestine and Israel, where the two people will realize their right of self-determination. The border between the two states will be drawn according to the June 4, 1967 border, thus bringing a complete end to the occupation.

1.

Democracy, Human Rights, Rule of Law

The two states will be democracies; their governments will be founded on the principle of rule of law and recognition of the universality of human rights, as recognized by international law, based on the principles of equality, freedom and the sanctity of human life.

2.

Migration and Citizenship

Both countries will have the right to determine the nature of immigration into them, and their citizenship laws. Therefore, Palestine will be free to grant citizenship to Palestinian refugees, and the State of Israel will be free to grant citizenship to diaspora Jews, as they see fit.

3.

Vision of the Open Land

Both states will be bound to the open land vision, where citizens of both countries are free to move and live in all parts of the land.

This right will also apply to any person who becomes a citizen of either country, including Palestinians from the Palestinian diaspora in Palestine, and Jews from the Jewish diaspora in Israel.

The two countries will work to fully realize this vision in several phases, mutually, and any progress will require both countries’ agreement.

In the first stage, the two states will recognize the right of their citizens to move, travel, visit, work and trade in all parts of the land.

In addition, in the first phase, the two countries will determine an agreed number of citizens of the other country who will live in their territory and receive permanent resident status, with all entailed rights. Such agreement will allow Israelis, including those who currently live in the territories where Palestine will be established, to live as permanent residents of Palestine, as long as they are willing to live peacefully alongside their neighbors under Palestinian sovereignty. This agreement will also allow Palestinians, including those who become citizens of Palestine, to become permanent residents of Israel, as long as they are willing to live peacefully alongside their neighbors under Israeli sovereignty.

These permanent residents, who will live in a country other then their country of citizenship, will be required to respect local laws and abstain from activities which undermine the security of the country in which they live or the security of its citizens.

The Israeli permanent residents of Palestine will exercise their voting rights in Israel, and the Palestinian permanent residents of Israel will exercise their voting rights in Palestine.

4.

Jerusalem

Jerusalem will serve as the capital of both states. The Palestinian residents will be Palestinian citizens, and the Israeli residents will be Israeli citizens.

Jerusalem will be a city shared by and open to citizens of both countries, within agreed borders. A special municipal government will be established in it, managed jointly and equally by both states.

The holy places will be managed with the participation of representatives of the different religions and the international community, while ensuring freedom of worship to people of all religions.

5.

Security

The two states will solve all their disputes in peaceful ways, and will act against any violence or terror. Each of the two countries will be sovereign on all matters relating to protecting public order within its borders and the personal security of its residents. Armed militias and unauthorized organizations will be disarmed.

The two states will enter a mutual defense treaty against external threats; no foreign military power will enter the territory of either country, but only in agreement.

A shared supreme security council will be formed to monitor and decide on common security issues. The council may deploy a joint force to protect the external borders, with the agreement of both states.

6.

Shared Institutions

The two states will share the following institutions:

Human Rights Court, which will be empowered to serve as the highest instance to rule on the following two matters:

  • Petitions by non-citizen residents against the country of their residence, claiming a violation of their rights;
  • Conflicts between the two states as to the rights of their citizens residing in the other state, and all matters deriving from the one land vision.

A shared institution to guarantee a minimum economic safety net for all residents of the land, both Palestinians and Israelis.

A special authority to manage and develop the land’s economy, which will include institutions for economic cooperation, coordination of customs, traffic of goods and labor, work migration, development of infrastructure and local and international investments. The economic institutions will strive to reduce the gaps between different regions and populations.

Institutions for cooperating on matters of water, natural resources and the environment, on the basis of a just distribution of resources, out of a commitment to develop the land and its resources to the benefit of all its residents.

Any additional shared institution required for the purpose of realizing the Two States, One Homeland solution. All shared institutions will have equal representation of citizens of both states.

7.

Palestinian Citizens of Israel

The Palestinian-Arab citizens of Israel will be granted national minority rights, civil equality, appropriate representation in government institutions in Israel, fair distribution of national resources and appropriate representation in the institutions shared by Israel and Palestine.

Insofar as a Jewish minority is created in Palestine, it will receive similar rights.

8.

Restitution and Reparation

A common mechanism will be created to manage the restitution of property lost or confiscated as the result of the conflict, or for reparation in case restitution is impossible. The principles of restitution and reparation will be agreed upon with the purpose of achieving maximum justice to victims of the conflict. Old wrongs will not be amended with new wrongs.

Israel and Palestine will call on Middle Eastern countries to compensate Jews for the property they have lost and allow those who so desire to return to their homes, as possible.

9.

Reconciliation

Common mechanisms will be established to reconcile the two people, including the establishment of shared reconciliation councils to allow a profound and comprehensive discussion of past wrongs on both sides. Shared plans will be formulated to promote reconciliation on the levels of the community, the education systems and cultural institutions.

10.

International Framework

To implement the reconciliation agreement, an international body acceptable to both sides will be formed, representing the following, among others: the Arab League, the European Union and the UN. This body will guarantee the implementation of the Two States, One Homeland plan, and will support it diplomatically, legally and economically.

The Two States, One Homeland solution will serve as the basis for integrating two independent states under a comprehensive peace agreement with Middle Eastern countries.

11.